Available opacity species

Line absorbers

Please see the Installation section for how to obtain and use the opacities listed below. For adding more opacity species not listed here, please see Adding opacities, among them how to plug-and-play install the Exomol opacities calculated in the pRT format, available from the Exomol website.

Default line absorbers, low resolution mode ("c-k", \(\lambda/\Delta\lambda=1000\))

These are the default line absorbers contained in the input_data folder you download during the installation.

In low resolution mode ("c-k"), most of the molecular opacities are calculated considering only the main isotopologue. This is different only for CO and TiO, where the contribution of all isotopologues is considered. For CO because the secondary isotopes of carbon, for example \(\rm ^{13}C\), are quite abundant when compared to the main isotope, that is \(\rm ^{12}C/^{13}C\sim 100\), and because CO has very strong and sparse lines. Not including these lines therefore has a noticeable effect already at low resolution. For TiO all isotopologues are included because the relative ratios between the Ti isotopes are quite large. Apart from these two species, the main isotopologue treatment compared very well to codes including all isotopologues, at this low resolution, see Baudino et al. (2017).

Important

Please cite the reference mentioned in the description (click the link) when making use of a line species listed below.

Species name

Required in mass fraction dictionary

Reference

AlH

AlH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Yurchenko+18

AlO

AlO

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Patrascu+15

C2H2

C2H2

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Chubb+20

C2H4

C2H4

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Mant+18

CH4

CH4

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Yurchenko+17

CO2

CO2

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Yurchenko+20

CO_all_iso_HITEMP

CO_all_iso_HITEMP

All isotopologues, HITEMP/Kurucz, see references in here

CO_12_HITEMP

CO_12_HITEMP

\(\rm ^{12}CO\) isotopologue, HITEMP, see references in here

CO_13_HITEMP

CO_13_HITEMP

\(\rm ^{13}CO\) isotopologue, HITEMP, see references in here

CO_all_iso_Chubb

CO_all_iso_Chubb

All isotopologues, ExoMolOP, Gordon+15

CO_13_Chubb

CO_13_Chubb

\(\rm ^{13}CO\) isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Gordon+15

CaH

CaH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Li+12

CrH

CrH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Burrows+02

FeH

FeH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Wende+10

H2O_HITEMP

H2O_HITEMP

Main isotopologue, HITEMP, see references in here

H2O_Exomol

H2O_Exomol

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Polyanski+18

H2S

H2S

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Azzam+16

HCN

HCN

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Barber+14

K_allard

K_allard

Main isotopologue, VALD, Allard wings, see references in here

K_burrows

K_burrows

Main isotopologue, VALD, Burrows wings

K_lor_cut

K_lor_cut

Main isotopologue, VALD, Lorentzian wings, see references in here

MgH

MgH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Gharib-Nezhad+13

MgO

MgO

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Tennyson+19

NH3

NH3

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Coles+19

NaH

NaH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Rivlin+15

Na_allard

Na_allard

Main isotopologue, VALD, new Allard wings, see references in here

Na_burrows

Na_burrows

Main isotopologue, VALD, Burrows wings

Na_lor_cut

Na_lor_cut

Main isotopologue, VALD, Lorentzian wings, see references in here

O2

O2

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Gordon+17

O3

O3

Main isotopologue, HITRAN, see references in here

OH

OH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Brooke+16

PH3

PH3

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Sousa-Silva+14

SH

SH

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Gorman+19

SiO

SiO

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Barton+13

SiO2

SiO2

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, Owens+20

TiO_all_Plez

TiO_all_Plez

All isotopologues, B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_48_Plez

TiO_48_Plez

\(\rm ^{48}TiO\) isotopologue, B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_all_Exomol

TiO_all_Exomol

All isotopologues, ExoMolOP, McKemmish+19

TiO_48_Exomol

TiO_48_Exomol

\(\rm ^{48}TiO\) isotopologue, ExoMolOP, McKemmish+19

VO_Plez

VO_Plez

Main isotopologue, B. Plez,, see references in here

VO

VO

Main isotopologue, ExoMolOP, McKemmish+16

Contributed atom and ion opacities:

Name

Mass frac.

Ref. line list / broad.

P (bar), T (K) range

Contributor

Al

Al

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Al+

Al+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Ca

Ca

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Ca+

Ca+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Fe

Fe

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Fe+

Fe+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Li

Li

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Mg

Mg

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Mg+

Mg+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

O

O

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Si

Si

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Si+

Si+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Ti

Ti

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Ti+

Ti+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

V

V

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

V+

V+

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Line absorbers, high resolution mode ("lbl", with \(\lambda/\Delta\lambda=10^6\))

Species name

Required in mass fraction dictionary

Description

C2H2_main_iso

C2H2_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITRAN, see references in here

CH4_212

CH4_212

\(\rm CH_3D\), HITRAN, see references in here

CH4_main_iso

CH4_main_iso

Main isotopologue, Exomol, see references in here

CO2_main_iso

CO2_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITEMP, see references in here

CO_27

CO_27

\(\rm ^{12}C^{17}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

CO_28

CO_28

\(\rm ^{12}C^{18}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

CO_36

CO_36

\(\rm ^{13}C^{16}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

CO_37

CO_37

\(\rm ^{13}C^{17}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

CO_38

CO_38

\(\rm ^{13}C^{18}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

CO_all_iso

CO_all_iso

All isotopologues, see references in here

CO_main_iso

CO_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITEMP, see references in here

H2O_162

H2O_162

\(\rm HDO\), HITRAN, see references in here

H2O_171

H2O_171

\(\rm H_2 \ ^{17}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

H2O_172

H2O_172

\(\rm HD^{17}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

H2O_181

H2O_181

\(\rm H_2 \ ^{18}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

H2O_182

H2O_182

\(\rm HD^{18}O\), HITRAN, see references in here

H2O_main_iso

H2O_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITEMP, see references in here

H2S_main_iso

H2S_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITRAN, see references in here

H2_12

H2_12

\(\rm HD\), HITRAN, see references in here

H2_main_iso

H2_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITRAN, see references in here

HCN_main_iso

HCN_main_iso

Main isotopologue, Exomol, see references in here

K

K

Main isotopologue, VALD, Allard wings, see references in here

NH3_main_iso

NH3_main_iso

Main isotopologue, Exomol, see references in here

Na

Na

Main isotopologue, VALD, Allard wings, see references in here

O3_main_iso

O3_main_iso

Main isotopologue, HITRAN, see references in here

PH3_main_iso

PH3_main_iso

Main isotopologue, Exomol, see references in here

SiO_main_iso

SiO_main_iso

Main isotopologue, Exomol, see references in here

TiO_all_iso

TiO_all_iso

All isotopologues, B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_46_Plez

TiO_46_Plez

\(\rm \ ^{46}TiO\), B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_47_Plez

TiO_47_Plez

\(\rm \ ^{47}TiO\), B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_48_Plez

TiO_48_Plez

\(\rm \ ^{48}TiO\), B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_49_Plez

TiO_49_Plez

\(\rm \ ^{49}TiO\), B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_50_Plez

TiO_50_Plez

\(\rm \ ^{50}TiO\), B. Plez, see references in here

TiO_46_Exomol_McKemmish

TiO_46_Exomol_McKemmish

\(\rm \ ^{46}TiO\), Exomol, McKemmish et al. (2019)

TiO_47_Exomol_McKemmish

TiO_47_Exomol_McKemmish

\(\rm \ ^{47}TiO\), Exomol, McKemmish et al. (2019)

TiO_48_Exomol_McKemmish

TiO_48_Exomol_McKemmish

\(\rm \ ^{48}TiO\), Exomol, McKemmish et al. (2019)

TiO_49_Exomol_McKemmish

TiO_49_Exomol_McKemmish

\(\rm \ ^{49}TiO\), Exomol, McKemmish et al. (2019)

TiO_50_Exomol_McKemmish

TiO_50_Exomol_McKemmish

\(\rm \ ^{50}TiO\), Exomol, McKemmish et al. (2019)

VO

VO

Main isotopologue, B. Plez, see references in here

FeH_main_iso

FeH_main_iso

Main isotopologue, Exomol, see references in here

Contributed atom and ion opacities, high resolution mode

Name

Mass frac.

Ref. line list / broad.

P (bar), T (K) range

Contributor

Al

Al

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

B

B

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Be

Be

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

C

C

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Ca

Ca

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

CaII

CaII

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Cr

Cr

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Fe

Fe

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

FeII

FeII

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Li

Li

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Mg

Mg

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

MgII

MgII

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

N

N

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Si

Si

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Ti

Ti

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

V

V

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

VII

VII

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

Y

Y

Kurucz, \(\gamma_{\rm nat+VdW},\sigma_{\rm therm}\)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

K. Molaverdikhani

VO_ExoMol_McKemmish

VO_ExoMol_McKemmish

McKemmish et al. (2016)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

S. de Regt

VO_ExoMol_Specific_Transitions

VO_ExoMol_Specific_Transitions

Most accurate transitions from McKemmish et al. (2016)

\(10^{-6}\)-\(10^{3}\), 80-4000

S. de Regt

Cloud opacities

Species name

Required in mass fraction dictionary

Description

Al2O3(c)_cm

Al2O3(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

Al2O3(c)_cd

Al2O3(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

Fe(c)_am

Fe(c)

Amorphous, Mie scattering (spherical)

Fe(c)_ad

Fe(c)

Amorphous, DHS (irregular shape)

Fe(c)_cm

Fe(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

Fe(c)_cd

Fe(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

H2O(c)_cm

H2O(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

H2O(c)_cd

H2O(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

KCL(c)_cm

KCL(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

KCL(c)_cd

KCL(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

Mg05Fe05SiO3(c)_am

Mg05Fe05SiO3(c)

Amorphous, Mie scattering (spherical)

Mg05Fe05SiO3(c)_ad

Mg05Fe05SiO3(c)

Amorphous, DHS (irregular shape)

Mg2SiO4(c)_am

Mg2SiO4(c)

Amorphous, Mie scattering (spherical)

Mg2SiO4(c)_ad

Mg2SiO4(c)

Amorphous, DHS (irregular shape)

Mg2SiO4(c)_cm

Mg2SiO4(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

Mg2SiO4(c)_cd

Mg2SiO4(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

MgAl2O4(c)_cm

MgAl2O4(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

MgAl2O4(c)_cd

MgAl2O4(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

MgFeSiO4(c)_am

MgFeSiO4(c)

Amorphous, Mie scattering (spherical)

MgFeSiO4(c)_ad

MgFeSiO4(c)

Amorphous, DHS (irregular shape)

MgSiO3(c)_am

MgSiO3(c)

Amorphous, Mie scattering (spherical)

MgSiO3(c)_ad

MgSiO3(c)

Amorphous, DHS (irregular shape)

MgSiO3(c)_cm

MgSiO3(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

MgSiO3(c)_cd

MgSiO3(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

Na2S(c)_cm

Na2S(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

Na2S(c)_cd

Na2S(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

SiC(c)_cm

SiC(c)

Crystalline, Mie scattering (spherical)

SiC(c)_cd

SiC(c)

Crystalline, DHS (irregular shape)

Rayleigh scatterers

Species name

Required in mass fraction dictionary

H2

H2

He

He

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

O2

O2

N2

N2

CO

CO

CH4

CH4

Continuum opacity sources

Species name

Required in mass fraction dictionary

Descripton

H2-H2

H2

Collision induced absorption (CIA)

H2-He

H2, He

Collision induced absorption (CIA)

N2-N2

N2

Collision induced absorption (CIA)

O2-O2

O2

Collision induced absorption (CIA)

N2-O2

N2, O2

Collision induced absorption (CIA)

CO2-CO2

CO2

Collision induced absorption (CIA)

H-

H, H-, e-

H- bound-free and free-free opacity